Here’s an interesting theory about dark matter, that it may be composed of miniture black holes. First, a review of why scientists believe dark matter exists.

Astrophysicists think dark matter dominates ordinary matter in the universe by more than five times because galaxies rotate too fast for their visible star-stuff to handle. Without the extra dark matter holding them together, the laws of physics say that these galaxies would fall apart—the Milky Way, for example, rotates so fast that it must contain 30 times more dark matter than ordinary matter.

via Wired

There is an assumption that gravity is the same at the scale of galaxies as it is in the scales of our experience. If that is correct, then there must be missing matter.

Dark matter, the mysterious extra mass in the universe that emits no light yet exerts a gravitational pull, may actually be made up of primordial black holes that originated with the Big Bang.

And these mini black holes can thank the Higgs boson for their birth — at least according to a new theory.

This theory, described March 23 in the journal Physical Review Letters, posits that these primeval black holes were created from instabilities in the field that gives rise to the Higgs boson, the mysterious “God” particle discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

“In principle, the explanation may count for all the dark matter,” in the form of primordial black holes, said study co-author Antonio Riotto, a physicist at the University of Geneva, in Switzerland.

However, not everyone is convinced, with some physicists saying that these primordial black holes are unlikely to explain all the dark matter found in the universe. …

The idea that black holes existing today could make up all of the dark matter in the universe is relatively controversial. Physicists have ruled out black holes with low mass, because not enough of them have been detected to explain all the extra mass in the universe. However, physicists haven’t ruled out medium-sized black holes. For instance, in February 2016, the  Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) announced it had detected two merging black holes that were 29 and 36 times as massive as our sun. Primordial black holes in that mass range have not been ruled out, making some researchers hopeful.

But some physicists doubt these celestial objects could explain much of the dark matter in the universe.

“Given what we know today, it’s fairly unlikely that primordial black holes are all the dark matter,” Simeon Bird, a black- hole physicist at the University of California Riverside, told Live Science, “But there’s no reason they couldn’t be 1 to 10 percent of it, as this model suggests. The easiest way to show it to be true would be to detect a primordial black hole.”

via LiveScience

One theory I found interesting in the past is that the fabric of space-time is made up of microscopic black holes and white holes with subatomic particles popping in and out of existence.

Micro black holes, also called quantum mechanical black holes or mini black holes, are hypothetical tiny black holes, for which quantum mechanical effects play an important role.[1] The concept that black holes may exist that are smaller than stellar mass was introduced in 1971 by Stephen Hawking.[2]

It is possible that such quantum primordial black holes were created in the high-density environment of the early Universe (or big bang), or possibly through subsequent phase transitions. They might be observed by astrophysicists through the particles they are expected to emit by Hawking radiation.

Some hypotheses involving additional space dimensions predict that micro black holes could be formed at energies as low as the TeV range, which are available in particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider. Popular concerns have then been raised over end-of-the-world scenarios (see Safety of particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider). However, such quantum black holes would instantly evaporate, either totally or leaving only a very weakly interacting residue.

In principle, a black hole can have any mass equal to or above the Planck mass (about 2.2×10−8 kg or 22 micrograms). To make a black hole, one must concentrate mass or energy sufficiently that the escape velocity from the region in which it is concentrated exceeds the speed of light.

via Wikipedia

Their major idea is that there are these tiny, minuscule black holes that are physically smaller than a single atom, but are about the mass of a thousand cars. …

The vacuum itself — populated by particle-antiparticle pairs — causes black holes to slowly radiate their mass away through the process of Hawking radiation.

Perhaps paradoxically, the smaller and lighter your black hole is, the faster it evaporates! For a black hole of the mass that these authors are proposing, the evaporation time is about two minutes!

via ScienceBlogs

If all life is all a simuation, the connected idea is that miniture white and black holes are the method used to create our virtual reality.

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