Timeline: The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Jesus Christ

“Nothing is hidden that will not be made known, or secret that will not come to light”


1058 Malcolm III becomes king of Scotland.

1073 Pope Gregory VII announces that, after one thousand years of the Christian church, henceforth only the bishop of Rome may use the title of papa (pope) and that all secular princes must henceforth kiss the pope’s foot as a gesture of reverential humility which they were not to extend to any other pope.

1093 King Malcolm III of Scotland dies.

1096 Hughes de Payen born in Vitry, son of mother Alef of Montbard. (his death is in 1244).

1100 Henry I becomes king of England

1104 Count Hugh of Champagne visits the Holy land and Jerusalem returning to Europe in 1108.

1114 Count Hugh of Champagne returns to Jerusalem and is accompanied by his vassal Hughes de Payen who remains in Jerusalem with eight other knights among them: Godfrey of Saint-Omar, Archambaud of Saint-Aignan, Payen of Montdidier, Geoffrey Bissot and a man known as both Rossal or Roland.

1119 On Christmas day, Hugh Of Payen and eight knights take a vow before the Patriarch in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre of poverty and chastity and obedience and become the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Jesus Christ. The Knights Templar are conceived.

1125 Hugh, Count of Champagne returns to Jerusalem, having repudiated his unfaithful wife, disinherited the son he believed was not his, passed his county to his nephew, Theobald, renounced all his worldly goods and took vows of poverty, chastity and obedience as a Poor Fellow-Soldier of Jesus Christ.

1127 Hughes de Payen visits western Europe to seek recruits and support for his Order and visits Fulk of Anjou to try to persuade him to marry King Baldwin’s daughter Melisende and become heir to the throne of Jerusalem.

1128 Hughes de Payen in Anjou. He meets with King Henry I of England who gives him gold and silver. Many other Frankish noblemen join his cause, many selling their property for the new cause of the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Jesus Christ. He travels to Scotland. Pope grants a “rule” to the Templars which makes it an officially recognized group of “Knights”. Hughes do Payen becomes first Grand Master. ( a rule was a Papal decree which allowed the Templars the right to bear arms and travel freely across lands under the control of the Pope and his appointed kings.

1131 king of Aragon bequeathed one-third of his lands to the Templars.

1135 King Stephen succeeds Henry I as king of England.

1138 Pope Innocent II issues a bull (Omne datum optimum) granting the Templars new power. The bull established that the Templars should be exempt from any and all intermediary ecclesiastical jurisdiction and be subject only to the Pope. The Patriarch of Jerusalem lost authority over the Order. The bull allowed for the Temple to have its own oratories permitted priests to join the order as chaplains making the Templars wholly independent of the diocesan bishops of outremer and the western bishops. It entitled the Temple to receive tithes but not to pay them, allowed for the right to have cemeteries attached to its houses and to bury travellers and their “confratres” (rights which had considerable monetary value. They became entitled to take booty from the enemy and were answerable only to their Master who must be one of their number and chosen by them without any pressure from secular powers.

Why was Pope Innocent II so generous to the Templars one might ask? It turns out that Bernard of Clairvaux helped bring him to power. Pope Innocent II was born Gregorio Papareschi from a Roman upper-class family. His election as Pope had been contested by a rival taking the name Anacletus II who was backed by the Norman King of Sicily, Roger II. Innocent fled to France where he won Bernard’s support who was held in such high esteem throughout France and England that Bernard was able to persuade Henry I of England and Louis VI of France to back Innocent II. Morbert, the Archbishop of Magdeburg was successful in persuading the German bishops and King Lothair III to back Innocent II. Technically then, there were two Popes, but Anacletus II was supported by only the Church of Scotland, Aquitaine and Norman Italy. Anacletus died in 1138 and in 1139 Innocent II returned to Rome.

1147 Pope Eugenius III crossed the Alps to France and proceeds to Clairvaux. Pope Eugenius had been on of Bernards monks at Clairvaux and knew Bernard well.

On 27 April he visited the Templars in their new enclave north of Paris where he appointed Brother Aymar the Templar Treasurer in Paris and declared that the Templars should receive one-twentieth tax on all Church goods that the Pope had instituted to pay for the new crusade. Present were King Louis of France, the Archbishop of Rheims, four other bishops and one hundred and thirty knights. The new master of the Templars, Everard of Barres had brought his best men from Portugal and Spain with many sergeants and squires. It was at this time that the Templars received the right to wear the scarlet cross over their hearts, the same symbol which came to be recognized in subsequent lore, the Red Cross of the Knights of legend.

1147 The Second Crusade begins. The Templars called upon by the Franks to help them reach the Byzantine port of Attalia. Louis, the French king calls upon the Templars for money, having exhausted his resources paying the extortionate prices for goods charged by his Byzantine “allies”. The King Louis of France wrote to Abbot Suger instructing him to repay the Templars two thousand silver marks, a sum equivalent to half the annual income of the royal demesne. The French forces are joined by German forces at the fortress of Acre in June 1148.

The Crusade is a total failure, mainly because of the bickering among the various groups, but also the breakup of the marriage of King Louis who’s wife was far wealthier than he and who refused to support him. The principal backers of the Crusade all die in short order. Abbot Suger of Saint-Denis dies in January 1151, King Conrad III of Germany dies in February 1152 and Everard of Barres, Grandmaster of the Templars resigns to become a monk at Clairvaux the same year. Pope Eugenius III dies in July 1153 and the grand old man Abbot Bernard of Clairvaux dies in August 1153.

1148 Templars found the town of Baldock, near Letchworth in Hertfordshire, England.

1149 In spite of the failure of the Second Crusade, the Templars continued their work in Jerusalem and were well established in the Temple Mount having quarters for at least 300 Knights and 1,000 sergeants . They constructed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

1154 Henry II takes the throne of England, succeeding King Stephen

1161 New Temple completed and occupied in England. The New Temple extends from Aldwych up the Strand and half-way along Fleet Street, then down to the Thames, where it has its own wharf.

1183 The death of his older brother, Henry, makes Richard III, son of Henry II, heir to the throne but he decides to take up the cross and go on crusade which leaves his brother John to look after the kingdom back home. Henry reluctantly follows but dies 6 July, 1189.

1185 (England) The London Temple is established just off the Strand

1189 Henry II of England dies.

1199 Richard the Lionheart killed 6 April by a bolt from a crossbow while trying to regain land lost to one of his vassals, the Viscount of Limoges.

1204 – 5 King John (England) entrusts the Templars with the Crown Jewels for their protection (The Templars were often employed in the transfer of money and precious stones and were the de facto “bankers” in England and France.

1214 William I, king of Scotland dies, Alexander II becomes king of Scotland.

1215 Magna Carta signed.

1209-1244 Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars of southern France. It was during this period that the Spanish priest Dominic Guzman would establish the Dominican Order.

1229 Holy Office established, officially known as the Holy Roman and Universal Inquisition. The Dominican order becomes the official inquisitors and torturers for the next 5oo years, developing specialized methods of torture to inflict maximum pain while attempting to avoid actually killing the victim of their torture.

1249 Alexander III succeeds Alexander II as King of Scotland

1259 Henry III (England) seeks Templar’s aid during the Baron’s Revolt.

1259 London Temple used by Parliament (England)

1260-1266 Henry III of England pawns the Crown Jewels to the Templars for cash.

1271 Tedaldo Visconti, the archbishop of Liege is elected Pope and takes the name Gregory X.

1274 Pope Gregory X calls a council at Lyons to propose a new crusade in May. No one comes except James I of Aragon. Michael of Byzantium promises to unite the Eastern and Western orthodox churches in the hope that Charles of Anjou would be dissuaded from attacking Byzantium. Charles of Anjou, Count of Provence, brother of Loius IX of France, with cash supplied by the Pope, mounts a campaign against the German heir to Frederick II and is successful. Pope declares Charles to be king of Sicily and Naples making his the strongman of the Mediterranean.

Charles, with the Pope’s help, convinces Maria of Antioch to relinquish her claim on the throne of Jerusalem and buys her off for ten thousand gold pounds. and a promise of four thousand gold pounds a year for life. Charles’ cousin is Grand Master of the Templars who has assured him of Templar support. The call for a new crusade by the Pope fails. Since the loss of Jerusalem Acre has become the major base of the Templars. King Hugh of Cypress has claimed the kingship of Jerusalem, and is desperately trying to claim anything else he can lay his hands on with little success and eventually retreats to Cypress.

1277 Charles of Anjou completes his deal with Maria of Antioch to buy the kingship of Jerusalem. He sends an armed force to Acre, backed by troops from Venice and the Knights Templar. King Hugh of Cypress gives up his claim to Jerusalem and Charles of Anjou is declared king of Jerusalem.

1279 King Hugh of Cypress tries to have another go at seizing something, anything and sets sail for Acre to try to seize that city. He arrives with his vassals and calls for support from the local power brokers, but no one comes. His vassals aren’t required to put in any more than four month’s service and they take off when the time is up, leaving poor Hugh alone and up against the Templars who support Henry of Anjou and have the backing of the Venetians.. Poor old Hugh gives up and returns to Cypress but seizes all Templar property in Cypress to get even with the Templars for resisting him in Acre. The Pope tells him to give the property back to the Templars and Hugh tells the Pope to go stick it. By this time in history, the Mongols, under descendants of Genghis Khan rule over Persia (Iran) and the land between the Tigres and Euphrates rivers (Iraq). The big mover and shaker is the sultan Kala’un.

1281 The Mongols try to take Damascus, tens of thousands die in the effort which ends in failure.

1282 March 30, an event known in history as the “Sicilian Vespers”. In one swoop, an underground organization many believe was the origins of the “Mafia” kill every Frenchman in Sicily. Charles of Anjou had been planning to try to conquer Byzantium and had been massing troops for the battle. This sudden change in affairs causes him to have to attempt to retake Sicily but discovers that King Pedro III of Aragon has the same idea. Suddenly they’re busy fighting each other for Sicily and the whole deal in Byzantium gets put on the back burner. Meanwhile, Michael of Byzantium who had offered up the Eastern orthodox religion as a way to get Charles off his back can now comfortably forget about that deal and does. Charles gets him but whipped in a naval battle with Pedro III in the Bay of Naples. The Pope comes to his aid but it’s too little, too late and Philip III, dad to the up and coming schemer Philip IV, gives his uncle Henry of Anjou a boost by attacking Aragon while King Pedro III is busy fighting Charles for Sicily. You gotta wonder if there ever was a time when everyone isn’t fighting everyone.

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And Hugh, remember Hugh? He tried his darndest to seize something, anything and had been forced back to Cypress. Well, he gets it in his head to try to take Jerusalem while everyone else is busy fighting each other. He sets sail for Tyre but, bad luck Hugh gets blown off course and ends up in Beirut. Obviously not cut out for the war stuff, he decides to continue on by ship to Tyre and sends his troops overland but they are attacked by Muslims. Hugh is convince the Templars had something to do with it. He continues on the Tyre, where he is well received and waits to be welcomed at Acre. Bad luck is on his side again. Acre is being run by Odo Poilechien and he isn’t about to rock the boat. Everyone in Acre likes it just peachy keen the way things are. The Templars there are content, and the Venetian traders aren’t about to do anything to disrupt their trade. Meanwhile, Hugh’s vassals, being under only a four month contract, pack up and go home when their time is up and Hugh is left wringing his hands. It must have been just too much for him.

1284 King Hugh of Cypress dies. Crown passes to his sickly seventeen year old son John who dies within a year. The crown of Cypress goes to John’s fourteen year old brother Henry. Five days earlier, Sultan Kala’un had taken the crusader port of Marquab. During THAT time, Charles of Anjou had also died. What with Charles now dead, he can do what his father Hugh couldn’t and he sets sail for Acre. Poor old Odo Poilechien didn’t really have a plan, but the Templars and the Knights Hospitallers did. They told Odo it best he recognize Henry since the only real opposition was Charles II (Charles of Anjou’s son) and he was still busy trying to take back Sicily. Odo needed the Templar’s and Hospitaller’s support, so he recognized Henry as controlling Acre.

1286 King Henry of Cypress declared “King of Jerusalem”. Alexander III, king of Scotland dies leaving no heirs.

1288 A new Pope in Rome, Nicholas IV. Edward, I is battling it out with Phillip IV for Bordeaux in France. King Charles II of France still fighting it out in Sicily with Aragon and Genoa, which was also at war with Venice. Not much of anyone is thinking crusades anymore.

1289 March, Kala’un (remember him, the mogul, descendent of Ghengis Kahn?) well he’s been busy and now he shows up in Tripoli and starts bombarding it with his catapults.. The Venetians and the Genoese high tail it out of the port with as much as they can load on their ships. The Templars and Hospitallers evacuate Prince Amalric of Cyprus and the countess Lucia of Tripoli but the Templar commander who stays behind is killed. Kala’un takes Tripoli. All the males are killed and all the women are taken for slaves. Kalan has the city taken apart stone by stone. Te residents of Acre are now just a little freaked out. Kala’un offers King Henry (remember him, the kid brother of John, son of that poor sod Hugh of Cypress?) a truce of ten years, ten months and ten days. Henry doesn’t like the sound of that… sounds like he’s a whole lot smarter than his dad. He sends out messengers to the various courts of Europe pleading for help, but he gets a general round of vague excuses why no one is available.

1290 In response to Henry’s plea for help, a group of people arrive from northern Italy. They are described as a mob of near-rabble but ready to fight the “infidel”. One day a drunken gathering of these Italians turns on some Moslem merchants in Acre and butchers the lot. Kala’un who has been waiting for a response to his offer to the ten year truce sees this as an excuse to clean things up and demands that the guilty Italians be turned over to him for punishment. Beaujeu of the Templars advises the council of Acre that the guilty Italians, Christian or not, should be turned over to the sultan. The council, knowing that this would mean certain death for the Italian Christians refuses to act on the Templar advice. The sultan starts moving on the Palestine coast. The Templars warn the council of Acre that their spies report the sultan is on the move and heading for Acre. The council doesn’t believe the Templars. Beaujeau sends an envoy to the sultan to try to stop his advance. The sultan says he isn’t interested in the people, just the city and will ransom Acre for Venetian gold zecchine (ducats) equal to the population. Beaujeau takes the offer to the council at Acre who insult the Templar master and accuse him of treason. By good luck, the sultan died before he reached Acre so things got delayed. The sultan’s son, al-Ashraf had sworn to his dad that he would carry on the attack on the Christians and the folks at Acre were supprised when the armies showed up at Acre. Hoping to fend off an invasion, they sent an envoy to the new sultan but the envoys were sent to the dungeons before they even had a chance to plead their case.

1291 April. The main body of the sultans forces arrive at Acre and prepare to assault the city. Acre has about fifteen thousand men, the sultan has about one hundred and fifty thousand men. You figure it out. King Henry arrived at Acre May 4th with about two thousand men. By May 15th, five of the outer towers of Acre had fallen. On May 18th the sultan began an all out assault. Guillaume de Beaujeu, the Templar commander was mortally wounded, King Henry, seeing that this didn’t look good, hightailed it out of the port and went back to Cypress, leaving the folks at Acre to fight it out. Anyone who had any brains at all tried to get out by ship. Some ships were so oveloaded they sank. The sultan’s men took the city and slaughtered every male they came upon, taking the women for slaves. The rumour is that the price of a slave fell to a single drachma because of the surplus they picked up in Acre. The Templars were the last to hold out in their stronghold along with as many women and children as they could, but they were cut off from the sea and any hope of being re-supplied. The sultan tired of trying to take the Templar stronghold and offered terms. Peter de Severy was in charge of the Templars. He accepted the sultan’s offer that they would leave their fortress in Acre for Cypress with their arms and whatever else they could carry. A hundred Mamelukes led by an emir of the sultan were admitted to the Temple to monitor the withdrawel of the Templars and refugees who had gathered there. The Marmelukes, however, began sexually assualting the women and boys angering the Templars who killed them all. The took down the sultan’s flag and let the sultan know that they would not surrender their Temple stronghold and would fight to the death. The sultan apologized for the behaviour of his men and re-offered the terms as before. Peter de Severy took a few of his men to discuss the terms with the sultan. Upon arriving at the sultan’s encampment, the Templars were seized by the sultan’s men and immediately beheaded.

Meanwhile, the sultan had been driving a tunnel under the temple foundation. On May 28 the sultan’s men breached the temple and it subsequently collapsed. Everyone in the temple was killed and no Christians were left in Acre.

The only fortress left was at Tyre. When the sultan and the Mamelukes approached Tyre, the commander of Tyre left immediately for Cypress. Tibald Gaudin, the treasurer of the Templars was at Sidon and was elected the new grand master. The sultan’s army arrived at Sidon a few weeks after the fall of Acre and the knights fell back to their fortress by the sea. The new Grand Master immediately set sail with the Temple treasure for Cypress. The Templars, judging the situation to be hopeless left by sea as well, leaving Sidon open to the sultan’s men, under the emir Shujai, entered and took control of Sidon on July 14 whereupon they commenced taking it down. In short order Beruit on July 31. Next fell Haifa. The Templars had a castle at Athlit which they abondoned on August 14th and they also abandoned their castle at Tortosa soon afterwards. For the first time in 170 years, the Templars had no foothold in the Holy land.

The Templars and Hospilallers received permission from Henry of Cypress to set up there. The following year Tibald Gaudin died nd the last grand master of the Knights Templar was elected. His name was Jacques de Molay. He began his Templar vocation at age twenty one in the year 1265. He became Grand Master at age forty eight. In spite of the losses in the Holy land, De Molay was in charge of the best fighting unit in Christendom, they had their own fleet of ships, thousands of agricultural manors in Europe, mills, trading monopolies and their financial operations, transfer of funds, and protection and transport of valualbles. While illiterate, de Molay was an experienced commander. He set about to restore morale and discipline. He had problems with king Henry of Cypress who tried to control the Templars in that country, but the Templars appealed to Pope Boniface VIII who was technically their boss.

The Pope answered the call by telling Henry of Cypress he should be happy to have the Templars in these uncertain times to help protect him. Molay, unfortunately, started getting it into his head that he should lead a new crusade. The Pope, however, was busy celebrating his own success and planning his jubilee in Rome and put any ideas of a new crusade on the back burner. Unfortunately for de Molay, he was so obsessed with his plans for a new crusade, and pleased with the strong support he got from Boniface VIII, that he failed to notice, it would appear, the conflicts that were going down between Phillip IV and the Pope. It may be that de Molay didn’t consider Phillip IV of France to be anyone much worth a second thought as he was only one of many European monarchs fighting each other for real estate on the continent.

Wasn’t Phillip, after all, busy fighting Edward I? The Grand Master had made a fatal oversight.

1305 Bernard de Goth, Archbishop of Bordeaux, with the backing of Phillip IV of France becomes the new Pope taking the name Clement V.

1306 Robert the Bruce crowned King of Scotland

1306 All Jews in France are arrested/deported, and their property seized.

1307 July, Edward II becomes King of England

14 Sept., 1307 Philip IV (France) issues secret orders to his Seneshal and Baillis calling for the arrest of all Templars across France.

Friday 13th October, 1307 Templars all across France are arrested in the early hours in one decisive swoop.

14th October, 1307 Trial begins in Paris

24th October, 1307 Jacques DeMolay confesses to the accusations under torture from William Imbert, Chief Inquisitor of France.

25th October, 1307 Jacques DeMolay is brought before the University of Paris, where he repeats his confession.

27th October, 1307 Pope Clement V writes to Philip IV, informing him he is concerned that he was not informed of the arrests of the Templars.

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1st November, 1307 Hughues de Pairaud, Visitor of the Order confesses to the Inquisition.

22nd November, 1307 Clement V issues the Papal Bull Pastoralis Praeemenentae.

24th December, 1307 Jacques DeMolay revokes his confession before the Pope’s emissaries.

1308 Templar fleet arrives in America

February, 1308 Pope Clement V suspends the powers of the Inquisition. First arrests of Templars in Ireland begins.

24th – 29th March 1308 Philip IV summons representatives of the three Orders of the Realm, the Estates General.

5th – 15th May, 1308 Estates General meet at tours.

27th June, 1308 72 Templars present their case to Clement V

5 July, 1308 Pope Clement V issues the Papal Bull, Subit Assidue.

12th August, 1308 Pope Clement V issues the Papal Bulls, Faciens Misericordiam and Regnans in Coelis.

March, 1309 Episcopal inquiry into the Order begins.

September, 1309 papal inquisitors arrive in England

22 November, 1309 Papal Commission Begins inquiries into the accusations against the Order.

26th November, 1309 Jacques DeMolay appears before the Papal Commission for the first time.

14 December, 1309 Edward II of England writes his sherrifs to hold Templars, but they seemingly ignore the orders as many Templars still wander at large.

14th March, 1310 A full list of accusations is read to the Templars who apear to mount a defense. The accusations comprise 127 articles.

28th March, 1310 Templars meet in Paris to defend the Order against the accusations.

4th April, 1310 Pope Clement V issues the Papal Bull Alma Mater.

7th April, 1310 Two Templars, Pierre de Bologna and Renaud de Provins, mount the first real defense.

10th May, 1310 54 Templars burned at the stake as heretics, destroying any chance of defending themselves and others of the order… dead men can’t talk.

6 August, 1310, Pope Clement chastizes King Edward II for not allowing inquisitors to use “sensible torture” to get more information from captured Templars.

16th October, 1311 Council of Vienne convened after being delayed for 12 months by Pope Clement V

22 March 1312 Pope Clement V issues the Papal Bull, Vox Excelso which officially suppressed the Order of the Templars.

2nd May, 1312 Pope Clement V issues the Papal Bull Ad Providam.

6 May, 1312 Pope Clement V issues the Papal Bull Considerantes Dudum.

21st March, 1313 The Knights Hospitaller donate 200,000 livre to Philip IV for his role in destroying the Knights Templar.

18th March, 1314 Jacques DeMolay, Geoffrey de Charney, Hugh de Peyraud and Guy de Auvergne are brought before the Papal Commission in Paris to receive life sentences.
Jacques DeMolay revokes his confession, angering Philip IV who over rules the Commission and sentences him and de Charney to death.

19th March, 1314 Jacques DeMolay and Geoffrey de Charney are burned alive at the stake on a small island in the River Seine called Ile des Javiaux.

20th April, 1314 Pope Clement V dies.

29th November, 1314 Philip IV dies in a hunting accident.
1314 Battle of Bannockburn. Very small force defeats English force with the help of mounted Templar Knights.

September, 1326 Edward II tricked into going to France by his wife and her lover, Roger de Mortimer, on pretence of negotiating back Bordeaux from the French. As soon as Edward was in France Isabella, his wife, dispatched a band of mercenaries to England. Edward’s boyfriend and his father were captured and stangled.

September 22, 1327 Edward II, Prince of Wales, met his end at Berkely Castle in Gloucester after being held the past year in various prisons. A red hot iron spit was shoved up his rectum.

1328 England recognizes Scotland as an independent country.

13 June, 1329 Pope accepts Robert I and his sussessors as the rightfull Kings of Scotland
1330 William St. Clair dies while taking the heart of Robert I to Jerusalem

1337 One Hundred Year’s War between France and England begins. Invention of English longbow changes military history. Mounted Knights no longer a superior force. Crossbows in common use.

1342-1348 Plague ravages all Europe. Over one third of entire population dies.

1348- Edward III of England creates the Order of the Garter consisting of two groups of 13 men.

1357 First recorded exhibition of the Shroud of Turin (believed to be that of Jacques de Maloy).

1381 Peasant’s Revolt in England. Simultaneous uprisings occur. Mob storms London. Chief Justice of England and Archbishop of Canerbury are beheaded by rebels. Rumours of a Great Society abound but no trace is found. The Freemasons are born.

1440 -1490 The Chapel is built at Roselyn Castle. William St. Clair introduces First Degree and Mark Masonry. Sir William Sinclair appointed Patron and protector of Scottish Masons (1441) by James II, of Scotland.

1473 19 February Nicolas Copernicus is born.

1485 August 22 King Richard III killed at battle of Bosworth with Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond who becomes King Henry VII.

1509 Henry VIII becomes King of England (his older brother died of tuberculosis, opening his way to the throne).

1516 Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon have a daughter, Mary. Henry wants a son and marys Anne Boleyn, mother of Queen to be, Elizabeth I.

1534 Clement VII, last of the Medici Popes dies. Michelangelo is still working on finishing the ceiling of the Cistine Chapel. England makes split with Roman Catholic Church. Henry disolves monastaries in 1536 and 1539 and redistributes their land to his friends.

1543 24 May, Niclolas Copernicus dies.

1547 Edward VI becomes king of England at age ten. He reigned only six years and died just short of his 16th birthday of tuberculosis. He repealed the laws of heresy. The duke of Northmberland tried, unsuccesfuly to bring Lady Jane Grey to the throne. She reigned only nine days to be succeded by Queen Mary I who began cancelling the anti-Roman laws. Known, affectionately, as Bllody Mary, she was a bloodthirsty queen.

1555 Queen Mary has the Anglican bishops Latimer and Ridley burned at the stake at Oxford in 1555 but allowed them to have sacks of gunpowder tied to their necks to end their lives quickly. She burned Archbishop Cranmer at Oxford the following year for an encore.

1559 Roman Inquisition begins.

1564 15 Feb. Galileo Galilie is born.

1587 Queen Mary executed, Queen Elizabeth 1 takes over.

1588 Spanish armada against Queen Elizabeth of England by King Phillip of Spain fails and is lost.

1583 James Stuart, son of Mary, Queen of Scots and great-grandson of Henry VII, becomes James VI of Scotland.

1598 First Schaw Statutes set up the Lodge System in England.

1599 First recorded minutes of a Masonic Lodge. Second Schaw Statutes published.

1601 James VI joins the Lodge of Scoon and Perth, being No. 3 on the present roll of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, at age 35.

1603 Queen Elizabeth I dies. James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England. He authorizes a new translation of the Bible that we know today as the King James version of the Bible meaning that this book was now available in the English tongue where previously it was available only in Greek and latin.

1604 Fellow Craft Degree of Freemasonry introduced by Francis Bacon.

1605 Guy Fawkes foiled in plot to destroy parliament and blow up the king.

1607 Inigo Jones manuscript.

1610 Galileo makes public his view of the structure of the solar system… He is condemned by Pope as heretic. Under protection of Medici Court, Galileo proves light and heavy object fall at same rate, establishes new ideas about buoyancy and makes discoveries of planets.

1620 Refugees of 30 Years War in Europe (Germany) begin flooding into England bringing adherents of Rosicrucianism.

1625 Charles I ascends to throne of England and comes into conflict with the House of Commons. New Model army created under Cromwell.

1628 Second St. Clair Charter confirms the Earl of Rosslyn as the Grand Master Mason.

1629 Charles I of England dissolves Parliament.

1633 Charles I refurbishes Holyrood Abbey for his Scottish Coronation and includes Masonic tombstones in the north wall, including one for the Earl of Sutherland. Galileo arrives in Rome to face the Inquisition who are ready to condemn him to death for his scientific work. The Grand Duke of Tuscany in Florence, a Medici, the Patron of Galileo is in a bind because he depends on the Pope for power and so he stops paying Galileo’s expenses. Galileo renounces his scientific findings and is sentenced to house arrest. He dies a broken man and is denied a public funeral by the Papacy.

1637 Diary of Earl of Rothes (England) records the phrase “Masone Word” on 13 October (anniversary of arrest of Knights Templar).

1638 National Covenant issued by nobels opposed to arbitrary rule of Charles I (ie, ruling without Parliament).

1641 Sir Robert Moray is initiated into Freemasonry at Newcastle by a warrant from Lodge of Edinburgh’s St. Mary’s Chapel.

1642 Charles I deposed by Parliament of England. 8January Galileo Galilei dies having been confined to house arrest by Roman Inquisition for expressing his scientific knowledge.

1643 English Civil War begins.

1645 Royal Society holds first meeting in London.

1646 End of the main phase of the English Civil War at Oxford.

1646 Elias Ashmole initiated in Warrington in an ad hoc Lodge. Charles I defeated by forces of Cromwell.

1649 January 30, Charles I executed, Cromwell established commonwealth but rules England in dictatorial style. Charles II lives in exile in France.

1650 Rosslyn Castle is destroyed. Cromwell and Monk spare the Chapel at Rosslyn.

1652 Wilkins, Ashmole and Wren meet for first time.

1658 September, Cromwell dies, his son takes over.

1660 Army deposes Cromwells son and invites Charles II back to England on May 29th. Monarchy restored by Charles II

1666 Great Fire of London

1662 Royal Society of the Advancement of Science formed by Freemasons.

1672 Isaac Newton is elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

1677 Charles II builds the Holy Royal Arch Symbol of the Crown, which was originally used by his father Charles I in his campaign against Parliament, into the entrance of Holyrood House.

1685 Charles II dies, James II becomes King of England and replaces government officials with Roman Catholics.

1689 Parliament denies James II succession to the throne. Mary, James daughter, and William of Orange share the throne.
1701 Act of Succession passed saying that crown would pass to nearest Protestant relative of the House of Stuart. Law passed that excluded any person not from the Church of England from the throne. Anne, daughter of James II becomes Queen of England.

1707 Act of Union joins England and Scotland.

1714 Queen Anne dies, nearest relative is Sophia, granddaughter of James I. Sophia’s son George I becomes king. First minutes of the Grand Lodge of York.

1717 Formation of the English Grand Lodge.

1721 The First Noble Grand Master, John, Duke of Montague is elected to the English Grand Lodge.

1725 Irish Grand Lodge formed.

1726 First known record of a Masonic Third Degree ceremony in Scotland.

1737 Scottish Grand Lodge is formed. Willam St. Clair is elected the first Grand Master.

1738 Pope issues the first Papal Bull against Freemasonry.

1747 Grand Lodge of Scotland is issued the First Charter to a travelling military lodge.

1752 George Washington is made a Freemason in the town of Fredericksburg at Lodge Fredericksburg.

4 July, 1776. Declaration of Independence signed, creating new nation of the United States of America. Declaration signed by 13 Freemasons.

13 October, 1792. The cornerstone of the White House laid on the anniversary of the death of Jaques de Molay. Six freemasons in attendance.

1826 March 13, Captain William Morgan of Batavis, New York signs a contract to publish a book he says will reveal Secret signs, the grips and rituals of Freemasonry. The printer’s shop is set on fire. Captain Morgan is arrested for non payment of debt but an anonymous benefactor pays the debt. He is abducted and is never seen again, presumed murdered.

19 March, 2003 Anniversary of death of Jacques de Molay. The United States of America begins war (drops first bombs) to take back Iraq (Ur). Great Britain joins the United States in War. Both countries led by Freemasons.

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