Folk-lore.–Says Max Müller: “Not only do we find the same words and the same terminations in Sanscrit and Gothic; not only do we find the same name for Zeus in Sanscrit, Latin, and German; not only is the abstract Dame for God the same in India, Greece, and Italy; but these very stories, these ‘Mährchen’ which nurses still tell, with almost the same words, in the Thuringian forest and in the Norwegian villages, and to which crowds of children listen under the Pippal-trees of India–these stories, too, belonged to the common heirloom of the Indo-European race, and their origin carries us back to the same distant past, when no Greek had set foot in Europe, no Hindoo had bathed in the sacred waters of the Ganges.”

And we find that an identity of origin can be established between the folk-lore or fairy tales of America and those of the Old World, precisely such as exists between the, legends of Norway and India.

Mr. Tylor tells us the story of the two brothers in Central America who,
starting on their dangerous journey to the land of Xibalba, where their
father had perished, plant each a cane in the middle of their
grandmother’s house, that she may know by its flourishing or withering
whether they are alive or dead. Exactly the same conception occurs in
Grimm’s “Mährchen,” when the two gold-children wish to see the world and
to leave their father; and when their father is sad, and asks them how
he shall bear news of them, they tell him, “We leave you the two golden
lilies; from these you can see how we fare. If they are fresh, we are
well; if they fade, we are ill; if they fall, we are dead.” Grimm traces
the same idea in Hindoo stories. “Now this,” says Max Müller, “is
strange enough, and its occurrence in India, Germany, and Central
America is stranger still.”

Compare the following stories, which we print in parallel columns, one from the Ojibbeway Indians, the other from Ireland:

| THE OJIBBEWAY STORY.             | THE IRISH STORY.                   |
|                                  |                                    |
| The birds met together one day   | The birds all met together one     |
| to try which could fly the       | day, and settled among themselves  |
| highest. Some flew up very       | that whichever of them could fly   |
| swift, but soon got tired, and   | highest was to be the king of      |
| were passed by others of         | all. Well, just as they were on    |
| stronger wing. But the eagle     | the hinges of being off, what      |
| went up beyond them all, and     | does the little rogue of a wren    |
| was ready to claim the victory,  | do but hop up and perch himself    |
| when the gray linnet, a very     | unbeknown on the eagle’s tail. So  |
| small bird, flew from the        | they flew and flew ever so high,   |
| eagle’s back, where it had       | till the eagle was miles above     |
| perched unperceived, and, being  | all the rest, and could not fly    |
| fresh and unexhausted,           | another stroke, he was so tired.   |
| succeeded in going the highest.  | “Then,” says he, “I’m king of the  |
| When the birds came down and     | birds.” “You lie!” says the wren,  |
| met in council to award the      | darting up a perch and a half      |
| prize it was given to the        | above the big fellow. Well, the    |
| eagle, because that bird had     | eagle was so mad to think how he   |
| not only gone up nearer to the   | was done, that when the wren was   |
| sun than any of the larger       | coming down he gave him a stroke   |
| birds, but it had carried the    | of his wing, and from that day to  |
| linnet on its back.              | this the wren was never able to    |
|                                  | fly farther than a hawthorn-bush.  |
| For this reason the eagle’s      |                                    |
| feathers became the most         |                                    |
| honorable marks of distinction   |                                    |
| a warrior could bear.            |                                    |

Compare the following stories:

| THE ASIATIC STORY.                 | THE AMERICAN STORY.              |
|                                    |                                  |
| In Hindoo mythology Urvasi came    | Wampee, a great hunter, once     |
| down from heaven and became the    | came to a strange prairie,       |
| wife of the son of Buddha only on  | where he heard faint sounds of   |
| condition that two pet rams        | music, and looking up saw a      |
| should never be taken from her     | speck in the sky, which proved   |
| bedside, and that she should       | itself to be a basket            |
| never behold her lord undressed.   | containing twelve most           |
| The immortals, however, wishing    | beautiful maidens, who, on       |
| Urvasi back in heaven, contrived   | reaching the earth, forthwith    |
| to steal the rams; and, as the     | set themselves to dance. He      |
| king pursued the robbers with his  | tried to catch the youngest,     |
| sword in the dark, the lightning   | but in vain; ultimately he       |
| revealed his person, the compact   | succeeded by assuming the        |
| was broken, and Urvasi             | disguise of a mouse. He was      |
| disappeared. This same story is    | very attentive to his new wife,  |
| found in different forms among     | who was really a daughter of     |
| many people of Aryan and Turanian  | one of the stars, but she        |
| descent, the central idea being    | wished to return home, so she    |
| that of a man marrying some one    | made a wicker basket secretly,   |
| of an aerial or aquatic origin,    | and, by help of a charm she      |
| and living happily with her till   | remembered, ascended to her      |
| he breaks the condition on which   | father.                          |
| her residence with him depends,    |                                  |
| stories exactly parallel to that   |                                  |
| of Raymond of Toulouse, who        |                                  |
| chances in the hunt upon the       |                                  |
| beautiful Melusina at a fountain,  |                                  |
| and lives with her happily until   |                                  |
| he discovers her fish-nature and   |                                  |
| she vanishes.                      |                                  |

If the legend of Cadmus recovering Europa, after she has been carried
away by the white bull, the spotless cloud, means that “the sun must
journey westward until he sees again the beautiful tints which greeted
his eyes in the morning,” it is curious to find a story current in North
America to the effect that a man once had a beautiful daughter, ‘whom he
forbade to leave the lodge lest she should be carried off by the king of
the buffaloes; and that as she sat, notwithstanding, outside the house
combing her hair, “all of a sudden the king of the buffaloes came
dashing on, with his herd of followers, and, taking her between his
horns, away be cantered over plains, plunged into a river which bounded
his land, and carried her safely to his lodge on the other side,” whence
she was finally recovered by her father.

Games.–The same games and sports extended from India to the shores of
Lake Superior. The game of the Hindoos, called pachisi, is played upon a
cross-shaped board or cloth; it is a combination of checkers and
draughts, with the throwing of dice, the dice determining the number of
moves; when the Spaniards entered Mexico they found the Aztecs playing a
game called patolli, identical with the Hindoo pachisi, on a similar
cross-shaped board. The game of ball, which the Indians of America were
in the habit of playing at the time of the discovery of the country,
from California to the Atlantic, was identical with the European chueca,
crosse, or hockey.

One may well pause, after reading this catalogue, and ask himself,
wherein do these peoples differ? It is absurd to pretend that all these
similarities could have been the result of accidental coincidences.

These two peoples, separated by the great ocean, were baptized alike in
infancy with blessed water; they prayed alike to the gods; they
worshipped together the sun, moon, and stars; they confessed their sins
alike; they were instructed alike by an established priesthood; they
were married in the same way and by the joining of hands; they armed
themselves with the same weapons; when children came, the man, on both
continents, went to bed and left his wife to do the honors of the
household; they tattooed and painted themselves in the same fashion;
they became intoxicated on kindred drinks; their dresses were alike;
they cooked in the same manner; they used the same metals; they employed
the same exorcisms and bleedings for disease; they believed alike in
ghosts, demons, and fairies; they listened to the same stories; they
played the same games; they used the same musical instruments; they
danced the same dances, and when they died they were embalmed in the
same way and buried sitting; while over them were erected, on both
continents, the same mounds, pyramids, obelisks, and temples. And yet we
are asked to believe that there was no relationship between them, and
that they had never had any ante-Columbian intercourse with each other.

If our knowledge of Atlantis was more thorough, it would no doubt appear
that, in every instance wherein the people of Europe accord with the
people of America, they were both in accord with the people of Atlantis;
and that Atlantis was the common centre from which both peoples derived
their arts, sciences, customs, and opinions. It will be seen that in
every case where Plato gives us any information in this respect as to
Atlantis, we find this agreement to exist. It existed in architecture,
sculpture, navigation, engraving, writing, an established priesthood,
the mode of worship, agriculture, the construction of roads and canals;
and it is reasonable to suppose that the, same correspondence extended
down to all the minor details treated of in this chapter.



1. ON the monuments of Central America there are representations of
bearded men. How could the beardless American Indians have imagined a
bearded race?

2. All the traditions of the civilized races of Central America point to
an Eastern origin.

The leader and civilizer of the Nahua family was Quetzalcoatl. This is
the legend respecting him:

“From the distant East, from the fabulous Hue Hue Tlapalan, this
mysterious person came to Tula, and became the patron god and
high-priest of the ancestors of the Toltecs. He is described as having
been a white man, with strong formation of body, broad forehead, large
eyes, and flowing beard. He wore a mitre on his head, and was dressed in
a long white robe reaching to his feet, and covered with red crosses. In
his hand he held a sickle. His habits were ascetic, he never married,
was most chaste and pure in life, and is said to have endured penance in
a neighboring mountain, not for its effects upon himself, but as a
warning to others. He condemned sacrifices, except of fruits and
flowers, and was known as the god of peace; for, when addressed on the
subject of war, he is reported to have stopped his ears with his
fingers.” (“North Amer. of Antiq.,” p. 268.)

“He was skilled in many arts: he invented” (that is, imported)
“gem-cutting and metal-casting; he originated letters, and invented the
Mexican calendar. He finally returned to the land in the East from which
he came: leaving the American coast at Vera Cruz, he embarked in a canoe
made of serpent-skins, and ‘sailed away into the east.'” (Ibid., p. 271.)

Dr. Le Plongeon says of the columns at Chichen:

“The base is formed by the head of Cukulcan, the shaft of the body of
the serpent, with its feathers beautifully carved to the very chapiter.
On the chapiters of the columns that support the portico, at the
entrance of the castle in Chichen Itza, may be seen the carved figures
of long-bearded men, with upraised hands, in the act of worshipping
sacred trees. They forcibly recall to mind the same worship in Assyria.”

In the accompanying cut of an ancient vase from Tula, we see a bearded
figure grasping a beardless man.

In the cut given below we see a face that might be duplicated among the
old men of any part of Europe.

The Cakchiquel MS. says: “Four persons came from Tulan, from the
direction of the rising sun–that is one Tulan. There is another Tulan
in Xibalbay, and another where the sun sets, and it is there that we
came; and in the direction of the setting sun there is another, where is
the god; so that there are four Tulans; and it is where the sun sets
that we came to Tulan, from the other side of the sea, where this Tulan
is; and it is there that we were conceived and begotten by our mothers
and fathers.”

That is to say, the birthplace of the race was in the East, across the
sea, at a place called Tulan and when they emigrated they called their
first stopping-place on the American continent Tulan also; and besides
this there were two other Tulans.

“Of the Nahua predecessors of the Toltecs in Mexico the Olmecs and
Xicalaucans were the most important. They were the forerunners of the
great races that followed. According to Ixtlilxochitl, these
people-which are conceded to be one occupied the world in the third age;
they came from the East in ships or barks to the land of Potonchan,
which they commenced to populate.”

3. The Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, in one of the notes of the
Introduction of the “Popol Vuh,” presents a very remarkable analogy
between the kingdom of Xibalba, described in that work, and Atlantis. He

“Both countries are magnificent, exceedingly fertile, and abound in the
precious metals. The empire of Atlantis was divided into ten kingdoms,
governed by five couples of twin sons of Poseidon, the eldest being
supreme over the others; and the ten constituted a tribunal that managed
the affairs of the empire. Their descendants governed after them. The
ten kings of Xibalba, who reigned (in couples) under Hun-Came and
Vukub-Came (and who together constituted a grand council of the
kingdom), certainly furnish curious points of comparison. And there is
wanting neither a catastrophe–for Xibalba had a terrific
inundation–nor the name of Atlas, of which the etymology is found only
in the Nahuatl tongue: it comes from atl, water; and we know that a city
of Atlan (near the water) still existed on the Atlantic side of the
Isthmus of Panama at the time of the Conquest.”

“In Yucatan the traditions all point to an Eastern and foreign origin
for the race. The early writers report that the natives believe their
ancestors to have crossed the sea by a passage which was opened for
them.” (Landa’s “Relacion,” p. 28.)

“It was also believed that part of the population came into the country
from the West. Lizana says that the smaller portion, ‘the little
descent,’ came from the East, while the greater portion, ‘the great
descent,’ came from the West. Cogolluda considers the Eastern colony to
have been the larger. . . . The culture-hero Zamna, the author of all
civilization in Yucatan, is described as the teacher of letters, and the
leader of the people from their ancient home. . . . He was the leader of
a colony from the East.” (“North Amer. of Antiq.,” p. 229.)

The ancient Mexican legends say that, after the Flood, Coxcox and his
wife, after wandering one hundred and four years, landed at Antlan, and
passed thence to Capultepec, and thence to Culhuacan, and lastly to

Coming from Atlantis, they named their first landing-place Antlan.

All the races that settled Mexico, we are told, traced their origin back
to an Aztlan (Atlan-tis). Duran describes Aztlan as “a most attractive
land.” (“North Amer. of Antiq.,” p. 257.)

Samé, the great name of Brazilian legend, came across the ocean from the
rising sun. He had power over the elements and tempests; the trees of
the forests would recede to make room for him (cutting down the trees);
the animals used to crouch before him (domesticated animals); lakes and
rivers became solid for him (boats and bridges); and he taught the use
of agriculture and magic. Like him, Bochica, the great law-giver of the
Muyscas, and son of the sun–he who invented for them the calendar and
regulated their festivals–had a white beard, a detail in which all the
American culture-heroes agree. The “Samé” of Brazil was probably the
“Zamna” of Yucatan.


4. We find in America numerous representations of the elephant. We are
forced to one of two conclusions: either the monuments date back to the
time of the mammoth in North America, or these people held intercourse
at some time in the past with races who possessed the elephant, and from
whom they obtained pictures of that singular animal. Plato tells us that
the Atlanteans possessed great numbers of elephants.

There are in Wisconsin a number of mounds of earth representing different animals-men, birds, and quadrupeds.


Among the latter is a mound representing an elephant, “so perfect in its proportions, and complete in its representation of an elephant, that its builders must have been well acquainted with all the physical characteristics of the animal which they delineated.” We copy the representation of this mound on page 168.

On a farm in Louisa County, Iowa, a pipe was ploughed up which also
represents an elephant. We are indebted to the valuable work of John T.
Short (“The North Americans of Antiquity,” p. 530) for a picture of this
singular object. It was found in a section where the ancient mounds were
very abundant and rich in relics. The pipe is of sandstone, of the
ordinary Mound-Builder’s type, and has every appearance of age and
usage. There can be no doubt of its genuineness. The finder had no
conception of its archæological value.

In the ruined city of Palenque we find, in one of the palaces, a stucco
bass-relief of a priest. His elaborate head-dress or helmet represents
very faithfully the head of an elephant. The cut on page 169 is from a
drawing made by Waldeck.

The decoration known as “elephant-trunks” is found in many parts of the
ancient ruins of Central America, projecting from above the door-ways of
the buildings.

In Tylor’s “Researches into the Early History of Mankind,” p. 313, I find a remarkable representation of an elephant, taken from an ancient Mexican manuscript. It is as follows:




1. Lenormant insists that the human race issued from Ups Merou, and adds
that some Greek traditions point to “this locality–particularly the
expression me’ropes a?’nðwpoi, which can only mean ‘the men sprung from
Merou.'” (“Manual,” p.21.)

Theopompus tells us that the people who inhabited Atlantis were the
Meropes, the people of Merou.

2. Whence comes the word Atlantic? The dictionaries tell us that the
ocean is named after the mountains of Atlas; but whence did the Atlas
mountains get their name?

“The words Atlas and Atlantic have no satisfactory etymology in any
language known to Europe. They are not Greek, and cannot be referred to
any known language of the Old World. But in the Nahuatl language we find
immediately the radical a, atl, which signifies water, war, and the top
of the head. (Molina, “Vocab. en lengua Mexicana y Castellana.”) From
this comes a series of words, such as atlan–on the border of or amid
the water–from which we ‘have the adjective Atlantic. We have also
atlaça, to combat, or be in agony; it means likewise to hurl or dart
from the water, and in the preterit makes Atlaz. A city named Atlan
existed when the continent was discovered by Columbus, at the entrance
of the Gulf of Uraba, in Darien. With a good harbor, it is now reduced
to an unimportant pueblo named Acla.” (Baldwin’s “Ancient America,” p.

Plato tells us that Atlantis and the Atlantic Ocean were named after
Atlas, the eldest son of Poseidon, the founder of the kingdom.

3. Upon that part of the African continent nearest to the site of
Atlantis we find a chain of mountains, known from the most ancient times
as the Atlas Mountains. Whence this name Atlas, if it be not from the
name of the great king of Atlantis? And if this be not its origin, how
comes it that we find it in the most north-western corner of Africa? And
how does it happen that in the time of Herodotus there dwelt near this
mountain-chain a people called the Atlantes, probably a remnant of a
colony from Solon’s island? How comes it that the people of the Barbary
States were known to the Greeks, Romans, and Carthaginians as the
“Atlantes,” this name being especially applied to the inhabitants of
Fezzan and Bilma? Where did they get the name from? There is no
etymology for it east of the Atlantic Ocean. (Lenormants “Anc. Hist. of
the East,” p. 253.)

Look at it! An “Atlas” mountain on the shore of Africa; an “Atlan” town
on the shore of America; the “Atlantes” living along the north and west
coast of Africa; an Aztec people from Aztlan, in Central America; an
ocean rolling between the two worlds called the “Atlantic;” a
mythological deity called “Atlas” holding the world on his shoulders;
and an immemorial tradition of an island of Atlantis. Can all these
things be the result of accident?

4. Plato says that there was a “passage west from Atlantis to the rest
of the islands, as well as from these islands to the whole opposite
continent that surrounds that real sea.” He calls it a real sea, as
contradistinguished from the Mediterranean, which, as he says, is not a
real sea (or ocean) but a landlocked body of water, like a harbor.

Now, Plato might have created Atlantis out of his imagination; but how
could he have invented the islands beyond (the West India Islands), and
the whole continent (America) enclosing that real sea? If we look at the
map, we see that the continent of America does “surround” the ocean in a
great half-circle. Could Plato have guessed all this? If there had been
no Atlantis, and no series of voyages from it that revealed the
half-circle of the continent from Newfoundland to Cape St. Roche, how
could Plato have guessed it? And how could he have known that the
Mediterranean was only a harbor compared with the magnitude of the great
ocean surrounding Atlantis? Long sea-voyages were necessary to establish
that fact, and the Greeks, who kept close to the shores in their short
journeys, did not make such voyages.

5. How can we, without Atlantis, explain the presence of the Basques in Europe, who have no lingual affinities with any other race on the continent of Europe, but whose language is similar to the languages of America?

Plato tells us that the dominion of Gadeirus, one of the kings of
Atlantis, extended “toward the pillars of Heracles (Hercules) as far as
the country which is still called the region of Gades in that part of
the world.” Gades is the Cadiz of today, and the dominion of Gadeirus
embraced the land of the Iberians or Basques, their chief city taking
its name from a king of Atlantis, and they themselves being Atlanteans.

Dr. Farrar, referring to the Basque language, says:

“What is certain about it is, that its structure is polysynthetic, like
the languages of America. Like them, it forms its compounds by the
elimination of certain radicals in the simple words; so that ilhun, the
twilight, is contracted from hill, dead, and egun, day; and belhaur, the
knee, from belhar, front, and oin, leg. . . . The fact is indisputable,
and is eminently noteworthy, that while the affinities of the Basque
roots have never been conclusively elucidated, there has never been any
doubt that this isolated language, preserving its identity in a western
corner of Europe, between two mighty kingdoms, resembles, in its
grammatical structure, the aboriginal languages of the vast opposite
continent (America), and those alone.” (“Families of Speech,” p. 132.)

If there was an Atlantis, forming, with its connecting ridges, a
continuous bridge of land from America to Africa, we can understand how
the Basques could have passed from one continent to another; but if the
wide Atlantic rolled at all times unbroken between the two continents,
it is difficult to conceive of such an emigration by an uncivilized

6. Without Atlantis, how can we explain the fact that the early
Egyptians were depicted by themselves as red men on their own monuments?
And, on the other hand, how can we account for the representations of
negroes on the monuments of Central America?

Dêsirè Charnay, now engaged in exploring those monuments, has published in the North American Review for December, 1880, photographs of a number of idols exhumed at San Juan de Teotihuacan, from which I select the following strikingly negroid faces:


Dr. Le Plongeon says:

“Besides the sculptures of long-bearded men seen by the explorer at
Chichen Itza, there were tall figures of people with small heads, thick
lips, and curly short hair or wool, regarded as negroes. ‘We always see
them as standard or parasol bearers, but never engaged in actual
warfare.'” (“Maya Archæology,” p. 62.)

The following cut is from the court of the Palace of Palenque, figured by Stephens. The face is strongly Ethiopian.

The figure below represents a gigantic granite head, found near the
volcano of Tuxtla, in the Mexican State of Vera Cruz, at Caxapa. The
features are unmistakably negroid.

As the negroes have never been a sea-going race, the presence of these
faces among the antiquities of Central America proves one of two things,
either the existence of a land connection between America and Africa via
Atlantis, as revealed by the deep-sea soundings of the Challenger, or
commercial relations between America and Africa through the ships of the
Atlanteans or some other civilized race, whereby the negroes were
brought to America as slaves at a very remote epoch.

And we find some corroboration of the latter theory in that singular
book of the Quiches, the “Popol Vuh,” in which, after describing the
creation of the first men “in the region of the rising sun” (Bancroft’s
“Native Races,” vol. v., p. 548), and enumerating their first
generations, we are told, “All seem to have spoken one language, and to
have lived in great peace, black men and white together. Here they
awaited the rising of the sun, and prayed to the Heart of Heaven.”
(Bancroft’s “Native Races,” p. 547.) How did the red men of Central
America know anything about “black men and white men?” The conclusion
seems inevitable that these legends of a primitive, peaceful, and happy
land, an Aztlan in the East, inhabited by black and white men, to which
all the civilized nations of America traced their origin, could only
refer to Atlantis–that bridge of land where the white, dark, and red
races met. The “Popol Vuh” proceeds to tell how this first home of the
race became over-populous, and how the people under Balam-Quitze
migrated; how their language became “confounded,” in other words, broken
up into dialects, in consequence of separation; and how some of the
people “went to the East, and many came hither to Guatemala.” (Ibid., p.

READ  The Antediluvian World 2

M. A. de Quatrefages (“Human Species,” p. 200) says, “Black populations
have been found in America in very small numbers only, as isolated
tribes in the midst of very different populations. Such are the
Charruas, of Brazil, the Black Carribees of Saint Vincent, in the Gulf
of Mexico; the Jamassi of Florida, and the dark-complexioned
Californians. . . . Such, again, is the tribe that Balboa saw some
representatives of in his passage of the Isthmus of Darien in 1513; . .
. they were true negroes.”

7. How comes it that all the civilizations of the Old World radiate from
the shores of the Mediterranean? The Mediterranean is a cul de sac, with
Atlantis opposite its mouth. Every civilization on its shores possesses
traditions that point to Atlantis. We hear of no civilization coming to
the Mediterranean from Asia, Africa, or Europe–from north, south, or
west; but north, south, east, and west we find civilization radiating
from the Mediterranean to other lands. We see the Aryans descending upon
Hindostan from the direction of the Mediterranean; and we find the
Chinese borrowing inventions from Hindostan, and claiming descent from a
region not far from the Mediterranean.

The Mediterranean has been the centre of the modern world, because it
lay in the path of the extension of an older civilization, whose ships
colonized its shores, as they did also the shores .of America. Plato
says, “the nations are gathered around the shores of the Mediterranean
like frogs around a marsh.”

Dr. McCausland says:

“The obvious conclusion from these facts is, that at some time previous
to these migrations a people speaking a language of a superior and
complicated structure broke up their society, and, under some strong
impulse, poured out in different directions, and gradually established
themselves in all the lands now inhabited by the Caucasian race. Their
territories extend from the Atlantic to the Ganges, and from Iceland to
Ceylon, and are bordered on the north and east by the Asiatic Mongols,
and on the south by the negro tribes of Central Africa. They present all
the appearances of a later race, expanding itself between and into the
territories of two pre-existing neighboring races, and forcibly
appropriating the room required for its increasing population.”
(McCausland’s “Adam and the Adamites,” p. 280.)

Modern civilization is Atlantean. Without the thousands of years of
development which were had in Atlantis modern civilization could not
have existed. The inventive faculty of the present age is taking up the
great delegated work of creation where Atlantis left it thousands of
years ago.

8. How are we to explain the existence of the Semitic race in Europe
without Atlantis? It is an intrusive race; a race colonized on
sea-coasts. Where are its Old World affinities?

9. Why is it that the origin of wheat, barley, oats, maize, and rye–the
essential plants of civilization–is totally lost in the mists of a vast
antiquity? We have in the Greek mythology legends of the introduction of
most of these by Atlantean kings or gods into Europe; but no European
nation claims to have discovered or developed them, and it has been
impossible to trace them to their wild originals. Out of the whole flora
of the world mankind in the last seven thousand years has not developed
a single food-plant to compare in importance to the human family with
these. If a wise and scientific nation should propose nowadays to add to
this list, it would have to form great botanical gardens, and, by
systematic and long-continued experiments, develop useful plants from
the humble productions of the field and forest. Was this done in the
past on the island of Atlantis?

10. Why is it that we find in Ptolemy’s “Geography of Asia Minor,” in a
list of cities in Armenia Major in A.D. 140, the names of five cities
which have their counterparts in the names of localities in Central

| Armenian Cities. | Central American Localities. |
| Chol.            | Chol-ula                     |
| Colua.           | Colua-can.                   |
| Zuivana.         | Zuivan.                      |
| Cholima.         | Colima.                      |
| Zalissa.         | Xalisco.                     |

(Short’s “North Americans of Antiquity,” p. 497.)

11. How comes it that the sandals upon the feet of the statue of
Chacmol, discovered at Chichen Itza, are “exact representations of those
found on the feet of the Guanches, the early inhabitants of the Canary
Islands, whose mummies are occasionally discovered in the eaves of
Teneriffe?” Dr. Merritt deems the axe or chisel heads dug up at
Chiriqui, Central America, “almost identical in form as well as material
with specimens found in Suffolk County, England.” (Bancroft’s Native
Races,” vol. iv., p. 20.) The rock-carvings of Chiriqui are pronounced
by Mr. Seemann to have a striking resemblance to the ancient incised
characters found on the rocks of Northumberland, England. (Ibid.)

“Some stones have recently been discovered in Hierro and Las Palmas
(Canary Islands), bearing sculptured symbols similar to those found on
the shores of Lake Superior; and this has led M. Bertholet, the
historiographer of the Canary Islands, to conclude that the first
inhabitants of the Canaries and those of the great West were one in
race.” (Benjamin, “The Atlantic Islands,” p. 130.)

12. How comes it that that very high authority, Professor Retzius
(“Smithsonian Report,” 1859, p. 266), declares, “With regard to the
primitive dolichocephalæ of America I entertain a hypothesis still more
bold, namely, that they are nearly related to the Guanches in the Canary
Islands, and to the Atlantic populations of Africa, the Moors, Tuaricks,
Copts, etc., which Latham comprises under the name of
Egyptian-Atlantidæ. We find one and the same form of skull in the Canary
Islands, in front of the African coast, and in the Carib Islands, on the
opposite coast, which faces Africa. The color of the skin on both sides
of the Atlantic is represented in these populations as being of a

13. The Barbarians who are alluded to by Homer and Thucydides were a
race of ancient navigators and pirates called Cares, or Carians, who
occupied the isles of Greece before the Pelasgi, and antedated the
Phœnicians in the control of the sea. The Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg
claims that these Carians were identical with the Caribs of the West
Indies, the Caras of Honduras, and the Gurani of South America. (Landa’s
“Relacion,” pp. 52-65.)

14. When we consider it closely, one of the most extraordinary customs
ever known to mankind is that to which I have already alluded in a
preceding chapter, to wit, the embalming of the body of the dead man,
with a purpose that the body itself may live again in a future state. To
arrive at this practice several things must coexist:

a. The people must be highly religious, and possessed of an organized and influential priesthood, to perpetuate so troublesome a custom from age to age.

b. They must believe implicitly in the immortality of the soul; and this implies a belief in rewards and punishments after death; in a heaven and a hell.

c. They must believe in the immortality of the body, and its resurrection from the grave on some day of judgment in the distant future.

d. But a belief in the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of
the body is not enough, for all Christian nations hold to these beliefs;
they must supplement these with a determination that the body shall not
perish; that the very flesh and blood in which the man died shall rise
with him on the last day, and not a merely spiritual body.

Now all these four things must coexist before a people proceed to embalm
their dead for religious purposes. The probability that all these four
things should coexist by accident in several widely separated races is
slight indeed. The doctrine of chances is all against it. There is here
no common necessity driving men to the same expedient, with which so
many resemblances have been explained; the practice is a religious
ceremony, growing out of religious beliefs by no means common or
universal, to wit, that the man who is dead shall live again, and live
again in the very body in which he died. Not even all the Jews believed
in these things.

If, then, it should appear that among the races which we claim were
descended from Atlantis this practice of embalming the dead is found,
and nowhere else, we have certainly furnished evidence which can only be
explained by admitting the existence of Atlantis, and of some great
religious race dwelling on Atlantis, who believed in the immortality of
soul and body, and who embalmed their dead. We find, as I have shown:

First. That the Guanches of the Canary Islands, supposed to be a remnant
of the Atlantean population, preserved their dead as mummies.

Second. That the Egyptians, the oldest colony of Atlantis, embalmed
their dead in such vast multitudes that they are now exported by the ton
to England, and ground up into manures to grow English turnips.

Third. That the Assyrians, the Ethiopians, the Persians, the Greeks, and
even the Romans embalmed their dead.

Fourth. On the American continents we find that the Peruvians, the
Central Americans, the Mexicans, and some of the Indian tribes, followed
the same practice.

Is it possible to account for this singular custom, reaching through a
belt of nations, and completely around the habitable world, without

15. All the traditions of the Mediterranean races look to the ocean as
the source of men and gods. Homer sings of

“Ocean, the origin of gods and Mother Tethys.”

Orpheus says, “The fair river of Ocean was the first to marry, and he
espoused his sister Tethys, who was his mothers daughter.” (Plato’s
“Dialogues,” Cratylus, p. 402.) The ancients always alluded to the ocean
as a river encircling the earth, as in the map of Cosmos (see page 95
ante); probably a reminiscence of the great canal described by Plato
which surrounded the plain of Atlantis. Homer (Iliad, book xviii.)
describes Tethys, “the mother goddess,” coming to Achilles “from the
deep abysses of the main:”

“The circling Nereids with their mistress weep,
And all the sea-green sisters of the deep.”

Plato surrounds the great statue of Poseidon in Atlantis with the images
of one hundred Nereids.

16. in the Deluge legends of the Hindoos (as given on page 87 ante), we
have seen Manu saving a small fish, which subsequently grew to a great
size, and warned him of the coming of the Flood. In this legend all the
indications point to an ocean as the scene of the catastrophe. It says:
“At the close of the last calpa there was a general destruction, caused
by the sleep of Brahma, whence his creatures, in different worlds, were
drowned in a vast ocean. . . . A holy king, named Satyavrata, then
reigned, a servant of the spirit which moved on the waves” (Poseidon?),
“and so devout that water was his only sustenance. . . . In seven days
the three worlds” (remember Poseidon’s trident) “shall be plunged in an
ocean of death.” . . . “‘Thou shalt enter the spacious ark, and continue
in it secure from the Flood on one immense ocean.’ . . . The sea
overwhelmed its shores, deluged the whole earth, augmented by showers
from immense clouds.” (“Asiatic Researches,” vol. i., p. 230.)

All this reminds us of “the fountains of the great deep and the
flood-gates of heaven,” and seems to repeat precisely the story of Plato
as to the sinking of Atlantis in the ocean.

17. While I do not attach much weight to verbal similarities in the
languages of the two continents, nevertheless there are some that are
very remarkable. We have seen the Pan and Maia of the Greeks reappearing
in the Pan and Maya of the Mayas of Central America. The god of the
Welsh triads, “Hu the mighty,” is found in the Hu-nap-bu, the hero-god
of the Quiches; in Hu-napu, a hero-god; and in Hu-hu-nap-hu, in Hu-ncam,
in Hu-nbatz, semi-divine heroes of the Quiches. The Phœnician deity El
“was subdivided into a number of hypostases called the Baalim, secondary
divinities, emanating from the substance of the deity” (“Anc. Hist.
East,” vol. ii., p. 219); and this word Baalim we find appearing in the
mythology of the Central Americans, applied to the semi-divine
progenitors of the human race, Balam-Quitze, Balam-Agab, and Iqui-Balam.



The tendency of scientific thought in ethnology is in the direction of
giving more and more importance to the race characteristics, such as
height, color of the hair, eyes and skin, and the formation of the skull
and body generally, than to language. The language possessed by a people
may be merely the result of conquest or migration. For instance, in the
United States to-day, white, black, and red men, the descendants of
French, Spanish, Italians, Mexicans, Irish, Germans, Scandinavians,
Africans, all speak the English language, and by the test of language
they are all Englishmen; and yet none of them are connected by birth or
descent with the country where that language was developed.

There is a general misconception as to the color of the European and
American races. Europe is supposed to be peopled exclusively by white
men; but in reality every shade of color is represented on that
continent, from the fair complexion of the fairest of the Swedes to the
dark-skinned inhabitants of the Mediterranean coast, only a shade
lighter than the Berbers, or Moors, on the opposite side of that sea.
Tacitus spoke of the “Black Celts,” and the term, so far as complexion
goes, might not inappropriately be applied to some of the Italians,
Spaniards, and Portuguese, while the Basques are represented as of a
still darker hue. Tylor says (“Anthropology,” p. 67), “On the whole, it
seems that the distinction of color, from the fairest Englishman to the
darkest African, has no hard and fast lines, but varies gradually from
one tint to another.”

And when we turn to America we find that the popular opinion that all Indians are “red men,” and of the same hue from Patagonia to Hudson’s Bay, is a gross error.

Prichard says (“Researches into the Physical History of Mankind,” vol. i., p. 269, 4th ed., 1841):

“It will be easy to show that the American races show nearly as great a
variety in this respect as the nations of the old continent; there are
among them white races with a florid complexion, and tribes black or of
a very dark hue; that their stature, figure, and countenance are almost
equally diversified.”

John T. Short says (“North Americans of Antiquity,” p. 189):

“The Menominees, sometimes called the ‘White Indians,’ formerly occupied
the region bordering on Lake Michigan, around Green Bay. The whiteness
of these Indians, which is compared to that of white mulattoes, early
attracted the attention of the Jesuit missionaries, and has often been
commented on by travellers. While it is true that hybridy has done much
to lighten the color of many of the tribes, still the peculiarity of the
complexion of this people has been marked since the first time a
European encountered them. Almost every shade, from the ash-color of the
Menominees through the cinnamon-red, copper, and bronze tints, may be
found among the tribes formerly occupying the territory cast of the
Mississippi, until we reach the dark-skinned Kaws of Kansas, who are
nearly as black as the negro. The variety of complexion is as great in
South America as among the tribes of the northern part of the continent.”

In foot-note of p. 107 of vol. iii. of “U. S. Explorations for a
Railroad Route to the Pacific Ocean,” we are told,

“Many of the Indians of Zuni (New Mexico) are white. They have a fair
skin, blue eyes, chestnut or auburn hair, and are quite good-looking.
They claim to be full-blooded Zunians, and have no tradition of
intermarriage with any foreign race. The circumstance creates no
surprise among this people, for from time immemorial a similar class of
people has existed among the tribe.”

Winchell says:

“The ancient Indians of California, in the latitude of forty-two
degrees, were as black as the negroes of Guinea, while in Mexico were
tribes of an olive or reddish complexion, relatively light. Among the
black races of tropical regions we find, generally, some light-colored
tribes interspersed. These sometimes have light hair and blue eyes. This
is the case with the Tuareg of the Sahara, the Afghans of India, and the
aborigines of the banks of the Oronoco and the Amazon.” (Winchell’s
“Preadamites,” p. 185.)

William Penn said of the Indians of Pennsylvania, in his letter of
August, 1683:

“The natives . . . are generally tall, straight, well-built, and of
singular proportion; they tread strong and clever, and mostly walk with
a lofty chin. . . . Their eye is little and black, not unlike a
straight-looked Jew. . . . I have seen among them as comely
European-like faces of both sexes as on your side of the sea; and truly
an Italian complexion hath not much more of the white, and the noses of
several of them have as much of the Roman. . . . For their original, I
am ready to believe them to be of the Jewish race–I mean of the stock
of the ten tribes–and that for the following reasons: first, in the
next place, I find them to be of the like countenance, and their
children of so lively a resemblance that a man would think himself in
Duke’s Place or Berry Street in London when he seeth them. But this is
not all: they agree in rites, they reckon by moons, they offer their
first-fruits, they have a kind of feast of tabernacles, they are said to
lay their altars upon twelve stones, their mourning a year, customs of
women, with many other things that do not now occur.”

Upon this question of complexion Catlin, in his “Indians of North
America,” vol. i., p. 95, etc., gives us some curious information. We
have already seen that the Mandans preserved an image of the ark, and
possessed legends of a clearly Atlantean character. Catlin says:

“A stranger in the Mandan village is first struck with the different
shades of complexion and various colors of hair which he sees in a crowd
about him, and is at once disposed to exclaim, ‘These are not Indians.’
There are a great many of these people whose complexions appear as light
as half-breeds; and among the women particularly there are many whose
skins are almost white, with the most pleasing symmetry and proportion
of feature; with hazel, with gray, and with blue eyes; with mildness and
sweetness of expression and excessive modesty of demeanor, which render
them exceedingly pleasing and beautiful. Why this diversity of
complexion I cannot tell, nor can they themselves account for it. Their
traditions, so far as I can learn them, afford us no information of
their having had any knowledge of white men before the visit of Lewis
and Clarke, made to their village thirty-three years ago. Since that
time until now (1835) there have been very few visits of white men to
this place, and surely not enough to have changed the complexions and
customs of a nation. And I recollect perfectly well that Governor Clarke
told me, before I started for this place, that I would find the Mandans
a strange people and half white.

“Among the females may be seen every shade and color of hair that can be
seen in our own country except red or auburn, which is not to be found.
. . . There are very many of both sexes, and of every age, from infancy
to manhood and old age, with hair of a bright silvery-gray, and in some
instances almost perfectly white. This unaccountable phenomenon is not
the result of disease or habit, but it is unquestionably an hereditary
characteristic which runs in families, and indicates no inequality in
disposition or intellect. And by passing this hair through my hands I
have found it uniformly to be as coarse and harsh as a horse’s mane,
differing materially from the hair of other colors, which, among the
Mandans, is generally as fine and soft as silk.

“The stature of the Mandans is rather below the ordinary size of man,
with beautiful symmetry of form and proportion, and wonderful suppleness
and elasticity.”

Catlin gives a group (54) showing this great diversity in complexion: one of the figures is painted almost pure white, and with light hair. The faces are European.


Major James W. Lynd, who lived among the Dakota Indians for nine years,
and was killed by them in the great outbreak of 1862, says (MS. “Hist.
of Dakotas,” Library, Historical Society, Minnesota, p. 47), after
calling attention to the fact that the different tribes of the Sioux
nation represent several different degrees of darkness of color:

“The Dakota child is of lighter complexion than the young brave; this
one lighter than the middle-aged man, and the middle-aged man lighter
than the superannuated homo, who, by smoke, paint, dirt, and a drying up
of the vital juices, appears to be the true copper-colored Dakota. The
color of the Dakotas varies with the nation, and also with the age and
condition of the individual. It may be set down, however, as a shade
lighter than olive; yet it becomes still lighter by change of condition
or mode of life, and nearly vanishes, even in the child, under constant
ablutions and avoiding of exposure. Those children in the Mission at
Hazlewood, who are taken very young, and not allowed to expose
themselves, lose almost entirely the olive shade, and become quite as
white as the American child. The Mandans are as light as the peasants of
Spain, while their brothers, the Crows, are as dark as the Arabs. Dr.
Goodrich, in the ‘Universal Traveller,’ p. 154, says that the modern
Peruvians, in the warmer regions of Peru, are as fair as the people of
the south of Europe.”

The Aymaras, the ancient inhabitants of the mountains of Peru and
Bolivia, are described as having an olive-brown complexion, with regular
features, large heads, and a thoughtful and melancholy cast of
countenance. They practised in early times the deformation of the skull.

Professor Wilson describes the hair of the ancient Peruvians, as found
upon their mummies, as “a lightish brown, and of a fineness of texture
which equals that of the Anglo-Saxon race.” “The ancient Peruvians,”
says Short (“North Americans of Antiquity,” p. 187), “appear, from
numerous examples of hair found in their tombs, to have been an
auburn-haired race.” Garcilasso, who had an opportunity of seeing the
body of the king, Viracocha, describes the hair of that monarch as
snow-white. Haywood tells us of the discovery, at the beginning of this
century, of three mummies in a cave on the south side of the Cumberland
River (Tennessee), who were buried in baskets, as the Peruvians were
occasionally buried, and whose skin was fair and white, and their hair
auburn, and of a fine texture. (“Natural and Aboriginal History of
Tennessee,” p. 191.)


Neither is the common opinion correct which asserts all the American
Indians to be of the same type of features. The portraits on this page
and on pages 187 and 191, taken from the “Report of the U. S. Survey for
a Route for a Pacific Railroad,” present features very much like those
of Europeans; in fact, every face here could be precisely matched among
the inhabitants of the southern part of the old continent.


On the other hand, look at the portrait of the great Italian orator and
reformer, Savonarola, on page 193. It looks more like the hunting
Indians of North-western America than any of the preceding faces. In
fact, if it was dressed with a scalp-lock it would pass muster anywhere
as a portrait of the “Man-afraid-of-his-horses,” or “Sitting Bull.”


Adam was, it appears, a red man. Winchell tells us that Adam is derived
from the red earth. The radical letters ÂDâM are found in ADaMaH,
“something out of which vegetation was made to germinate,” to wit, the
earth. ÂDôM and ÂDOM signifies red, ruddy, bay-colored, as of a horse,
the color of a red heifer. “ÂDâM, a man, a human being, male or female,
red, ruddy.” (“Preadamites,” p.161.)

“The Arabs distinguished mankind into two races, one red, ruddy, the other black.” (Ibid.) They classed themselves among the red men.

Not only was Adam a red man, but there is evidence that, from the
highest antiquity, red was a sacred color; the gods of the ancients were
always painted red. The Wisdom of Solomon refers to this custom: “The
carpenter carved it elegantly, and formed it by the skill of his
understanding, and fashioned it to the shape of a man, or made it like
some vile beast, laying it over with vermilion, and with paint, coloring
it red, and covering every spot therein.”

The idols of the Indians were also painted red, and red was the religious color. (Lynd’s MS. “Hist. of Dakotas,” Library, Hist. Society, Minn.)

The Cushites and Ethiopians, early branches of the Atlantean stock, took their name from their “sunburnt” complexion; they were red men.

The name of the Phœnicians signified red. Himyar, the prefix of the Himyaritic Arabians, also means red, and the Arabs were painted red on the Egyptian monuments.

The ancient Egyptians were red men. They recognized four races of
men–the red, yellow, black, and white men. They themselves belonged to
the “Rot,” or red men; the yellow men they called “Namu”–it included
the Asiatic races; the black men were called “Nahsu,” and the white men
“Tamhu.” The following figures are copied from Nott and Gliddon’s “Types
of Mankind,” p. 85, and were taken by them from the great works of
Belzoni, Champollion, and Lepsius.

In later ages so desirous were the Egyptians of preserving, the
aristocratic distinction of the color of their skin, that they
represented themselves on the monuments as of a crimson hue–an
exaggeration of their original race complexion.

In the same way we find that the ancient Aryan writings divided mankind
into four races–the white, red, yellow, and black: the four castes of
India were founded upon these distinctions in color; in fact, the word
for color in Sanscrit (varna) means caste. The red men, according to the
Mahâbhârata, were the Kshatriyas–the warrior caste-who were afterward
engaged in a fierce contest with the whites–the Brahmans–and were
nearly exterminated, although some of them survived, and from their
stock Buddha was born. So that not only the Mohammedan and Christian but
the Buddhistic religion seem to be derived from branches of the Hamitic
or red stock. The great Manu was also of the red race.


The Egyptians, while they painted themselves red-brown, represented the
nations of Palestine as yellow-brown, and the Libyans yellow-white. The
present inhabitants of Egypt range from a yellow color in the north
parts to a deep bronze. Tylor is of opinion (“Anthropology,” p. 95) that
the ancient Egyptians belonged to a brown race, which embraced the
Nubian tribes and, to some extent, the Berbers of Algiers and Tunis. He
groups the Assyrians, Phœnicians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Andalusians,
Bretons, dark Welshmen, and people of the Caucasus into one body, and
designates them as “dark whites.” The Himyarite Arabs, as I have shown,
derived their name originally from their red color, and they were
constantly depicted on the Egyptian monuments as red or light brown.
Herodotus tells us that there was a nation of Libyans, called the
Maxyans, who claimed descent from the people of Troy (the walls of Troy,
we shall see, were built by Poseidon; that is to say, Troy was an
Atlantean colony). These Maxyans painted their whole bodies red. The
Zavecians, the ancestors of the Zuavas of Algiers (the tribe that gave
their name to the French Zouaves), also painted themselves red. Some of
the Ethiopians were “copper-colored.” (“‘Amer. Cyclop.,” art. Egypt, p.
464.) Tylor says (“Anthropology,” p. 160): “The language of the ancient
Egyptians, though it cannot be classed in the Semitic family with
Hebrew, has important points of correspondence, whether due to the long
intercourse between the two races in Egypt or to some deeper ancestral
connection; and such analogies also appear in the Berber languages of
North Africa.”

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These last were called by the ancients the Atlanteans.

“If a congregation of twelve representatives from Malacca, China, Japan,
Mongolia, Sandwich Islands, Chili, Peru, Brazil, Chickasaws, Comanches,
etc., were dressed alike, or undressed and unshaven, the most skilful
anatomist could not, from their appearance, separate them.” (Fontaine’s
“How the World was Peopled,” pp. 147, 244.)

Ferdinand Columbus, in his relation of his father’s voyages, compares
the inhabitants of Guanaani to the Canary Islanders (an Atlantean race),
and describes the inhabitants of San Domingo as still more beautiful and
fair. In Peru the Charanzanis, studied by M. Angraud, also resemble the
Canary Islanders. L’Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg imagined himself
surrounded by Arabs when all his Indians of Rabinal were around him; for
they had, he said, their complexion, features, and beard. Pierre Martyr
speaks of the Indians of the Parian Gulf as having fair hair. (“The
Human Species,” p. 201.) The same author believes that tribes belonging
to the Semitic type are also found in America. He refers to “certain
traditions of Guiana, and the use in the country of a weapon entirely
characteristic of the ancient Canary Islanders.”

When science is able to disabuse itself of the Mortonian theory that the
aborigines of America are all red men, and all belong to one race, we
may hope that the confluence upon the continent of widely different
races from different countries may come to be recognized and
intelligently studied. There can be no doubt that red, white, black, and
yellow men have united to form the original population of America. And
there can be as little doubt that the entire population of Europe and
the south shore of the Mediterranean is a mongrel race–a combination,
in varying proportions, of a dark-brown or red race with a white race;
the characteristics of the different nations depending upon the
proportions in which the dark and light races are mingled, for peculiar
mental and moral characteristics go with these complexions. The
red-haired people are a distinct variety of the white stock; there were
once whole tribes and nations with this color of hair; their blood is
now intermingled with all the races of men, from Palestine to Iceland.
Everything in Europe speaks of vast periods of time and long, continued
and constant interfusion of bloods, until there is not a fair-skinned
man on the Continent that has not the blood of the dark-haired race in
his veins; nor scarcely a dark-skinned man that is not lighter in hue
from intermixture with the white stock.



The Hebrews are a branch of the great family of which that powerful
commercial race, the Phœnicians, who were the merchants of the world
fifteen hundred years before the time of Christ, were a part. The
Hebrews carried out from the common storehouse of their race a mass of
traditions, many of which have come down-to us in that oldest and most
venerable of human compositions, the Book of Genesis. I have shown that
the story of the Deluge plainly refers to the destruction of Atlantis,
and that it agrees in many important particulars with the account given
by Plato. The people destroyed were, in both instances, the ancient race
that had created civilization; they had formerly been in a happy and
sinless condition; they had become great and wicked; they were destroyed
for their sins–they were destroyed by water.

But we can go farther, and it can be asserted that there is scarcely a
prominent fact in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis that
cannot be duplicated from the legends of the American nations, and
scarcely a custom known to the Jews that does not find its counterpart
among the people of the New World.

Even in the history of the Creation we find these similarities:

The Bible tells us (Gen. i., 2) that in the beginning the earth was
without form and void, and covered with water. In the Quiche legends we
are told, “at first all was sea–no man, animal, bird, or green
herb–there was nothing to be seen but the sea and the heavens.”

The Bible says (Gen. i., 2), “And the Spirit of God moved upon the face
of the waters.” The Quiche legend says, “The Creator–the Former, the
Dominator–the feathered serpent–those that give life, moved upon the
waters like a glowing light.”

The Bible says (Gen. i., 9), “And God said, Let the waters under the
heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear:
and it was so.” The Quiche legend says, “The creative spirits cried out
‘Earth!’ and in an instant it was formed, and rose like a vapor-cloud;
immediately the plains and the mountains arose, and the cypress and pine

The Bible tells us, “And God saw that it was good.” The Quiche legend
says, “Then Gucumatz was filled with joy, and cried out, ‘Blessed be thy
coming, O Heart of Heaven, Hurakan, thunder-bolt.'”

The order in which the vegetables, animals, and man were formed is the
same in both records.

In Genesis (chap. ii., 7) we are told, “And the Lord God formed man of
the dust of the ground.” The Quiche legend says. “The first man was made
of clay; but he had no intelligence, and was consumed in the water.”

In Genesis the first man is represented as naked. The Aztec legend says,
“The sun was much nearer the earth then than now, and his grateful
warmth rendered clothing unnecessary.”

Even the temptation of Eve reappears in the American legends. Lord
Kingsborough says: “The Toltecs had paintings of a garden, with a single
tree standing in the midst; round the root of the tree is entwined a
serpent, whose head appearing above the foliage displays the face of a
woman. Torquemada admits the existence of this tradition among them, and
agrees with the Indian historians, who affirm that this was the first
woman in the world, who bore children, and from whom all mankind are
descended.” (“Mexican Antiquities,” vol. viii., p. 19.) There is also a
legend of Suchiquecal, who disobediently gathered roses from a tree, and
thereby disgraced and injured herself and all her posterity. (“Mexican
Antiquities,” vol. vi., p. 401.)

The legends of the Old World which underlie Genesis, and were used by
Milton in the “Paradise Lost,” appear in the Mexican legends of a war of
angels in heaven, and the fall of Zou-tem-que (Soutem, Satan–Arabic,
Shatana?) and the other rebellious spirits.

We have seen that the Central Americans possessed striking parallels to
the account of the Deluge in Genesis.

There is also a clearly established legend which singularly resembles
the Bible record of the Tower of Babel.

Father Duran, in his MS. “Historia Antiqua de la Nueva Espana,” A.D.
1585, quotes from the lips of a native of Cholula, over one hundred
years old, a version of the legend as to the building of the great
pyramid of Cholula. It is as follows:

“In the beginning, before the light of the sun had been created, this
land (Cholula) was in obscurity and darkness, and void of any created
thing; all was a plain, without hill or elevation, encircled in every
part by water, without tree or created thing; and immediately after the
light and the sun arose in the east there appeared gigantic men of
deformed stature and possessed the land, and desiring to see the
nativity of the sun, as well as his occident, proposed to go and seek
them. Dividing themselves into two parties, some journeyed to the west
and others toward the east; these travelled; until the sea cut off their
road, whereupon they determined to return to the place from which they
started, and arriving at this place (Cholula), not finding the means of
reaching the sun, enamored of his light and beauty, they determined to
build a tower so high that its summit should reach the sky. Having
collected materials for the purpose, they found a very adhesive clay and
bitumen, with which they speedily commenced to build the tower; and
having reared it to the greatest possible altitude, so that they say it
reached to the sky, the Lord of the Heavens, enraged, said to the
inhabitants of the sky, ‘Have you observed how they of the earth have
built a high and haughty tower to mount hither, being enamored of the
light of the sun and his beauty? Come and confound them, because it is
not right that they of the earth, living in the flesh, should mingle
with us.’ Immediately the inhabitants of the sky sallied forth like
flashes of lightning; they destroyed the edifice, and divided and
scattered its builders to all parts of the earth.”


One can recognize in this legend the recollection, by a ruder race, of a
highly civilized people; for only a highly civilized people would have
attempted such a vast work. Their mental superiority and command of the
arts gave them the character of giants who arrived from the East; who
had divided into two great emigrations, one moving eastward (toward
Europe), the other westward (toward America). They were sun-worshippers;
for we are told “they were enamored of the light and beauty of the sun,”
and they built a high place for his worship.

The pyramid of Cholula is one of the greatest constructions ever erected
by human hands. It is even now, in its ruined condition, 160 feet high,
1400 feet square at the base, and covers forty-five acres; we have only
to remember that the greatest pyramid of Egypt, Cheops, covers but
twelve or thirteen acres, to form some conception of the magnitude of
this American structure.

It must not be forgotten that this legend was taken down by a Catholic
priest, shortly after the conquest of Mexico, from the lips of an old
Indian who was born before Columbus sailed from Spain.

Observe the resemblances between this legend and the Bible account of
the building of the Tower of Babel:

“All was a plain without hill or elevation,” says the Indian legend.
“They found a plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there,” says
the Bible. They built of brick in both cases. “Let us build us a tower
whose top may reach unto heaven,” says the Bible. “They determined to
build a tower so high that its summit should reach the sky,” says the
Indian legend. “And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower
which the children of men had builded. And the Lord said, Behold . . .
nothing will be restrained from them which they have imagined to do. Go
to, let us go down and confound them,” says the Bible record. “The Lord
of the Heavens, enraged, said to the inhabitants of the sky, ‘Have you
observed,’ etc. Come and confound them,” says the Indian record. “And
the Lord scattered them abroad from thence on all the face of the
earth,” says the Bible. “They scattered its builders to all parts of the
earth,” says the Mexican legend.

Can any one doubt that these two legends must have sprung in some way
from one another, or from some common source? There are enough points of
difference to show that the American is not a servile copy of the Hebrew
legend. In the former the story comes from a native of Cholula: it is
told under the shadow of the mighty pyramid it commemorates; it is a
local legend which he repeats. The men who built it, according to his
account, were foreigners. They built it to reach the sun–that is to
say, as a sun-temple; while in the Bible record Babel was built to
perpetuate the glory of its architects. In the Indian legend the gods
stop the work by a great storm, in the Bible account by confounding the
speech of the people.

Both legends were probably derived from Atlantis, and referred to some
gigantic structure of great height built by that people; and when the
story emigrated to the east and west, it was in the one case affixed to
the tower of the Chaldeans, and in the other to the pyramid of Cholula,
precisely as we find the ark of the Deluge resting upon separate
mountain-chains all the way from Greece to Armenia. In one form of the
Tower of Babel legend, that of the Toltecs, we are told that the pyramid
of Cholula was erected “as a means of escape from a second flood, should
another occur.”

But the resemblances between Genesis and the American legends do not
stop here.

We are told (Gen. ii., 21) that “the Lord God caused a deep sleep to
fall upon Adam,” and while he slept God made Eve out of one of his ribs.
According to the Quiche tradition, there were four men from whom the
races of the world descended (probably a recollection of the red, black,
yellow, and white races); and these men were without wives, and the
Creator made wives for them “while they slept.”

Some wicked misanthrope referred to these traditions when he said, “And
man’s first sleep became his last repose.”

In Genesis (chap. iii., 22), “And the Lord God said, Behold, the man is
become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth
his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever:”
therefore God drove him out of the garden. In the Quiche legends we are
told, “The gods feared that they had made men too perfect, and they
breathed a cloud of mist over their vision.”

When the ancestors of the Quiches migrated to America the Divinity
parted the sea for their passage, as the Red Sea was parted for the

The story of Samson is paralleled in the history of a hero named
Zipanca, told of in the “Popol Vuh,” who, being captured by his enemies
and placed in a pit, pulled down the building in which his captors had
assembled, and killed four hundred of them.

“There were giants in those days,” says the Bible. A great deal of the Central American history is taken up with the doings of an ancient race of giants called Quinames.

This parallelism runs through a hundred particulars:

Both the Jews and Mexicans worshipped toward the east.

Both called the south “the right hand of the world.”

Both burnt incense toward the four corners of the earth.

Confession of sin and sacrifice of atonement were common to both peoples.

Both were punctilious about washings and ablutions.

Both believed in devils, and both were afflicted with leprosy.

Both considered women who died in childbirth as worthy of honor as soldiers who fell in battle.

Both punished adultery with stoning to death.

As David leaped and danced before the ark of the Lord, so did the Mexican monarchs before their idols.

Both had an ark, the abiding-place of an invisible god.

Both had a species of serpent-worship.


Compare our representation of the great serpent-mound in Adams County, Ohio, with the following description of a great serpent-mound in Scotland:

“Serpent-worship in the West.–Some additional light appears to have
been thrown upon ancient serpent-worship in the West by the recent
archaeological explorations of Mr. John S. Phené, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., in
Scotland. Mr. Phené has just investigated a curious earthen mound in
Glen Feechan, Argyleshire, referred to by him, at the late meeting of
the British Association in Edinburgh, as being in the form of a serpent
or saurian. The mound, says the Scotsman, is a most perfect one. The
head is a large cairn, and the body of the earthen reptile 300 feet
long; and in the centre of the head there were evidences, when Mr. Phené
first visited it, of an altar having been placed there. The position
with regard to Ben Cruachan is most remarkable. The three peaks are seen
over the length of the reptile when a person is standing on the head, or
cairn. The shape can only be seen so as to be understood when looked
down upon from an elevation, as the outline cannot be understood unless
the whole of it can be seen. This is most perfect when the spectator is
on the head of the animal form, or on the lofty rock to the west of it.
This mound corresponds almost entirely with one 700 feet long in
America, an account of which was lately published, after careful survey,
by Mr. Squier. The altar toward the head in each case agrees. In the
American mound three rivers (also objects of worship with the ancients)
were evidently identified. The number three was a sacred number in all
ancient mythologies. The sinuous winding and articulations of the
vertebral spinal arrangement are anatomically perfect in the Argyleshire
mound. The gentlemen present with Mr. Phené during his investigation
state that beneath the cairn forming the head of the animal was found a
megalithic chamber, in which was a quantity of charcoal and burnt earth
and charred nutshells, a flint instrument, beautifully and minutely
serrated at the edge, and burnt bones. The back or spine of the serpent,
which, as already stated, is 300 feet long, was found, beneath the peat
moss, to be formed by a careful adjustment of stones, the formation of
which probably prevented the structure from being obliterated by time
and weather.” (Pall Mall Gazette.)


We find a striking likeness between the works of the Stone Age in
America and Europe, as shown in the figures here given.

The same singular custom which is found among the Jews and the Hindoos,
for “a man to raise up seed for his deceased brother by marrying his
widow,” was found among the Central American nations. (Las Casas, MS.
“Hist. Apoloq.,” cap. ccxiii., ccxv. Torquemada, “Monarq. Ind.,” tom.
ii., 377-8.)

No one but the Jewish high-priest might enter the Holy of Holies. A
similar custom obtained in Peru. Both ate the flesh of the sacrifices of
atonement; both poured the blood of the sacrifice on the earth; they
sprinkled it, they marked persons with it, they smeared it upon walls
and stones. The Mexican temple, like the Jewish, faced the east. “As
among the Jews the ark was a sort of portable temple, in which the Deity
was supposed to be continually present, so among the Mexicans, the
Cherokees, and the Indians of Michoacan and Honduras, an ark was held in
the highest veneration, and was considered an object too sacred to be
touched by any but the priests.” (Kingsborough, “Mex. Antiq., “vol.
viii., p.258.)

The Peruvians believed that the rainbow was a sign that the earth would
not be again destroyed by a deluge. (Ibid., p. 25.)

The Jewish custom of laying the sins of the people upon the head of an
animal, and turning him out into the wilderness, had its counterpart
among the Mexicans, who, to cure a fever, formed a dog of maize paste
and left it by the roadside, saying the first passer-by would carry away
the illness. (Dorman, “Prim. Super.,” p. 59.) Jacob’s ladder had its
duplicate in the vine or tree of the Ojibbeways, which led from the
earth to heaven, up and down which the spirits passed. (Ibid., p. 67.)

Both Jews and Mexicans offered water to a stranger that he might wash
his feet; both ate dust in token of humility; both anointed with oil;
both sacrificed prisoners; both periodically separated the women, and
both agreed in the strong and universal idea of uncleanness connected
with that period.

Both believed in the occult power of water, and both practised baptism.

“Then the Mexican midwife gave the child to taste of the water, putting
her moistened fingers in its mouth, and said, ‘Take this; by this thou
hast to live on the earth, to grow and to flourish; through this we get
all things that support existence on the earth; receive it.’ Then with
moistened fingers she touched the breast of the child, and said, ‘Behold
the pure water that washes and cleanses thy heart, that removes all
filthiness; receive it: may the goddess see good to purify And cleanse
thine heart.’ Then the midwife poured water upon the head of the child,
saying, ‘O my grandson–my son–take this water of the Lord of the
world, which is thy life, invigorating and refreshing, washing and
cleansing. I pray that this celestial water, blue and light blue, may
enter into thy body, and there live; I pray that it may destroy in thee
and put away from thee all the things evil and adverse that were given
thee before the beginning of the world. . . . Wheresoever thou art in
this child, O thou hurtful thing, begone! leave it, put thyself apart;
for now does it live anew, and anew is it born; now again is it purified
and cleansed; now again is it shaped and engendered by our mother, the
goddess of water.” (Bancroft’s “Native Races,” vol. iii., p. 372.)

Here we find many resemblances to the Christian ordinance of baptism:
the pouring of the water on the head, the putting of the fingers in the
mouth, the touching of the breast, the new birth, and the washing away
of the original sin. The Christian rite, we know, was not a Christian
invention, but was borrowed from ancient times, from the great
storehouse of Asiatic traditions and beliefs.

The Mexicans hung up the heads of their sacrificed enemies; this was
also a Jewish custom:

“And the Lord said unto Moses, Take all the heads of the people, and
hang them up before the Lord against the sun, that the fierce anger of
the Lord may be turned away from Israel. And Moses said unto the judges
of Israel, Slay ye every one his men that were joined unto Baal-peor.”
(Numb., xxv., 4, 5.)

The Scythians, Herodotus tells us, scalped their enemies, and carried
the scalp at the pommel of their saddles; the Jews probably scalped
their enemies:

“But God shall wound the head of his enemies, and the hairy scalp of
such a one as goeth on still in his trespasses.” (Psa., lxviii., 21.)

The ancient Scandinavians practised scalping. When Harold Harefoot
seized his rival, Alfred, with six hundred followers, he “had them
maimed, blinded, hamstrung, scalped, or embowelled.” (Taine’s “Hist.
Eng. Lit.,” p. 35.)

Herodotus describes the Scythian mode of taking the scalp: “He makes a
cut round the head near the ears, and shakes the skull out.” This is
precisely the Indian custom. “The more scalps a man has,” says
Herodotus, “the more highly he is esteemed among them.”

The Indian scalp-lock is found on the Egyptian monuments as one of the
characteristics of the Japhetic Libyans, who shaved all the head except
one lock in the middle.

The Mantchoos of Tartary wear a scalp-lock, as do the modern Chinese.

Byron describes the heads of the dead Tartars under the walls of Corinth, devoured by the wild dogs:

“Crimson and green were the shawls of their wear, And each scalp had a single long tuft of hair, All the rest was shaven and bare.”

These resemblances are so striking and so numerous that repeated
attempts have been made to prove that the inhabitants of America are the
descendants of the Jews; some have claimed that they represented “the
lost tribes” of that people. But the Jews were never a maritime or
emigrating people; they formed no colonies; and it is impossible to
believe (as has been asserted) that they left their flocks and herds,
marched across the whole face of Asia, took ships and sailed across the
greatest of the oceans to a continent of the existence of which they had
no knowledge.

If we seek the origin of these extraordinary coincidences in opinions
and habits, we must go far back of the time of the lost tribes. We must
seek it in the relationship of the Jews to the family of Noah, and in
the identity of the Noachic race destroyed in the Deluge with the people
of the drowned Atlantis.

Nor need it surprise us to find traditions perpetuated for thousands upon thousands of years, especially among a people having a religious priesthood.

The essence of religion is conservatism; little is invented; nothing
perishes; change comes from without; and even when one religion is
supplanted by another its gods live on as the demons of the new faith,
or they pass into the folk-lore and fairy stories of the people. We see
Votan, a hero in America, become the god Odin or Woden in Scandinavia;
and when his worship as a god dies out Odin survives (as Dr. Dasent has
proved) in the Wild Huntsman of the Hartz, and in the Robin Hood (Oodin)
of popular legend. The Hellequin of France becomes the Harlequin of our
pantomimes. William Tell never existed; he is a myth; a survival of the
sun-god Apollo, Indra, who was worshipped on the altars of Atlantis.

“Nothing here but it doth change into something rich and strange.”

The rite of circumcision dates back to the first days of Phœnicia,
Egypt, and the Cushites. It, too, was probably an Atlantean custom,
invented in the Stone Age. Tens of thousands of years have passed since
the Stone Age; the ages of copper, bronze, and iron bare intervened; and
yet to this day the Hebrew rabbi performs the ceremony of circumcision
with a stone knife.